EndingNegotiator

class scml.oneshot.EndingNegotiator(preferences=None, ufun=None, name=None, parent=None, owner=None, id=None, type_name=None, can_propose=True)[source]

Bases: negmas.sao.negotiators.base.SAONegotiator

Attributes Summary

ami

rtype

NegotiatorMechanismInterface

capabilities

Agent capabilities

crisp_ufun

Returns the preferences if it is a CrispUtilityFunction else None

has_cardinal_preferences

Does the entity has an associated ufun?

has_preferences

Does the entity has an associated ufun?

id

The unique ID of this entity

name

A convenient name of the entity (intended primarily for printing/logging/debugging).

nmi

rtype

NegotiatorMechanismInterface

owner

Returns the owner agent of the negotiator

parent

Returns the parent controller

preferences

The utility function attached to that object

prob_ufun

Returns the preferences if it is a ProbUtilityFunction else None

reserved_outcome

Reserved outcome is the outcome that will be realized by default for this agent.

reserved_value

Reserved value is what the entity gets if no agreement is reached in the negotiation.

short_type_name

rtype

str

type_name

rtype

str

ufun

Returns the preferences if it is a UtilityFunction else None

uuid

The unique ID of this entity

Methods Summary

add_capabilities(capabilities)

Adds named capabilities to the negotiator.

add_handler(notification_type, callback)

Adds a notification handler to the list of handlers of the given type.

before_death(cntxt)

Called whenever the parent is about to kill this negotiator.

cancel([reason])

A method that may be called by a mechanism to make the negotiator cancel whatever it is currently processing.

checkpoint(path[, file_name, info, ...])

Saves a checkpoint of the current object at the given path.

checkpoint_info(file_name)

Returns the information associated with a dump of the object saved in the given file

counter(state, offer)

Called by the mechanism to counter the offer.

create(*args, **kwargs)

Creates an object and returns a proxy to it.

from_checkpoint(file_name[, return_info])

Creates an object from a saved checkpoint

handlers(notification_type)

Gets the list of handlers registered for some notification type.

is_acceptable_as_agreement(outcome)

Whether the given outcome is acceptable as a final agreement of a negotiation.

isin(negotiation_id)

Is that agent participating in the given negotiation? Tests if the agent is participating in the given negotiation.

join(nmi, state, *[, preferences, ufun, role])

Called by the mechanism when the agent is about to enter a negotiation.

on_leave(state)

A call back called after leaving a negotiation.

on_mechanism_error(state)

A call back called whenever an error happens in the mechanism.

on_negotiation_end(state)

A call back called at each negotiation end

on_negotiation_start(state)

A call back called at each negotiation start

on_notification(notification, notifier)

Called whenever a notification is received

on_notification_(notification, notifier)

Called when a notification is received.

on_partner_proposal(state, partner_id, offer)

A callback called by the mechanism when a partner proposes something

on_partner_refused_to_propose(state, partner_id)

A callback called by the mechanism when a partner refuses to propose

on_partner_response(state, partner_id, ...)

A callback called by the mechanism when a partner responds to some offer

on_preferences_changed(changes)

Called to inform the entity that its ufun has changed.

on_round_end(state)

A call back called at each negotiation round end

on_round_start(state)

A call back called at each negotiation round start

propose(state)

Propose an offer or None to refuse.

propose_(state)

The method directly called by the mechanism (through counter ) to ask for a proposal

remove_capability(name)

Removes named capability from the negotiator

remove_handler(notification_type, callback)

Removes a notification handler from the list of handlers of the given type.

respond(state, offer)

Called to respond to an offer.

respond_(state, offer)

The method to be called directly by the mechanism (through counter ) to respond to an offer.

set_preferences(value[, force])

Sets tha utility function/Preferences.

spawn([spawn_as, spawn_params])

spawn_object(*args, **kwargs)

Attributes Documentation

ami
Return type

NegotiatorMechanismInterface

capabilities

Agent capabilities

Return type

dict[str, Any]

crisp_ufun

Returns the preferences if it is a CrispUtilityFunction else None

Return type

UtilityFunction | None

has_cardinal_preferences

Does the entity has an associated ufun?

Return type

bool

has_preferences

Does the entity has an associated ufun?

Return type

bool

id

The unique ID of this entity

name

A convenient name of the entity (intended primarily for printing/logging/debugging).

nmi
Return type

NegotiatorMechanismInterface

owner

Returns the owner agent of the negotiator

Return type

Agent | None

parent

Returns the parent controller

Return type

Controller | None

preferences

The utility function attached to that object

Return type

Preferences | None

prob_ufun

Returns the preferences if it is a ProbUtilityFunction else None

Return type

ProbUtilityFunction | None

reserved_outcome

Reserved outcome is the outcome that will be realized by default for this agent.

Remarks:

  • Reserved outcomes are defined for OrdinalPreferences.

See also

reserved_value

Return type

tuple | None

reserved_value

Reserved value is what the entity gets if no agreement is reached in the negotiation.

The reserved value can either be explicity defined for the ufun or it can be the output of the ufun for None outcome.

Return type

float

short_type_name
Return type

str

type_name
Return type

str

ufun

Returns the preferences if it is a UtilityFunction else None

Return type

BaseUtilityFunction | None

uuid

The unique ID of this entity

Methods Documentation

add_capabilities(capabilities)

Adds named capabilities to the negotiator.

Parameters

capabilities (dict) – The capabilities to be added as a dict

Return type

None

Returns

None

Remarks:

It is the responsibility of the caller to be really capable of added capabilities.

add_handler(notification_type, callback)

Adds a notification handler to the list of handlers of the given type. These handlers will be called in the order in which they are received

Parameters
  • notification_type (str) – Notification type as specificed in the type member of the Notification class

  • callback (Callable[[Notification, str], bool]) – The callback which must receive a Notification object and a string and returns a boolean. If True is returned from one callback, the remaining callbacks will not be called

Returns:

before_death(cntxt)

Called whenever the parent is about to kill this negotiator.

It should return False if the negotiator does not want to be killed but the controller can still force-kill it

Return type

bool

cancel(reason=None)

A method that may be called by a mechanism to make the negotiator cancel whatever it is currently processing.

Negotiators can just ignore this message (default behavior) but if there is a way to actually cancel work, it should be implemented here to improve the responsiveness of the negotiator.

Return type

None

checkpoint(path, file_name=None, info=None, exist_ok=False, single_checkpoint=True, step_attribs=('current_step', '_current_step', '_Entity__current_step', '_step'))

Saves a checkpoint of the current object at the given path.

Parameters
  • path (PathLike) – Full path to a directory to store the checkpoint

  • file_name (Optional[str]) – Name of the file to dump into. If not given, a unique name is created

  • info (Optional[dict[str, Any]]) – Information to save with the checkpoint (must be json serializable)

  • exist_ok (bool) – If true, override existing dump

  • single_checkpoint (bool) – If true, keep a single checkpoint for the last step

  • step_attribs (tuple[str, ...]) – Attributes to represent the time-step of the object. Any of the given attributes will be used in the file name generated if single_checkpoint is False. If single_checkpoint is True, the filename will not contain time-step information

Return type

Path

Returns

full path to the file used to save the checkpoint

classmethod checkpoint_info(file_name)

Returns the information associated with a dump of the object saved in the given file

Parameters

file_name (Path | str) – Name of the object

Returns:

Return type

dict[str, Any]

counter(state, offer)

Called by the mechanism to counter the offer. It just calls respond_ and propose_ as needed.

Parameters
  • state (SAOState) – SAOState giving current state of the negotiation.

  • offer (tuple | None) – The offer to be countered. None means no offer and the agent is requested to propose an offer

Returns

The response to the given offer with a counter offer if the response is REJECT

Return type

Tuple[ResponseType, Outcome]

classmethod create(*args, **kwargs)

Creates an object and returns a proxy to it.

classmethod from_checkpoint(file_name, return_info=False)

Creates an object from a saved checkpoint

Parameters
  • file_name (Path | str) –

  • return_info – If True, tbe information saved when the file was dumped are returned

Return type

NamedObject | tuple[NamedObject, dict[str, Any]]

Returns

Either the object or the object and dump-info as a dict (if return_info was true)

Remarks:

  • If info is returned, it is guaranteed to have the following members:
    • time: Dump time

    • type: Type of the dumped object

    • id: ID

    • name: name

handlers(notification_type)

Gets the list of handlers registered for some notification type. This list can be modified in place to change the order of handlers for example. It is NOT a copy.

Return type

list[Callable[[Notification, str], bool]]

is_acceptable_as_agreement(outcome)

Whether the given outcome is acceptable as a final agreement of a negotiation.

The default behavior is to reject only if a reserved value is defined for the agent and is known to be higher than the utility of the outcome.

Return type

bool

isin(negotiation_id)

Is that agent participating in the given negotiation? Tests if the agent is participating in the given negotiation.

Parameters

negotiation_id (Optional[str]) – The negotiation ID tested. If None, it means ANY negotiation

Returns

True if participating in the given negotiation (or any

negotiation if it was None)

Return type

bool

join(nmi, state, *, preferences=None, ufun=None, role='negotiator')

Called by the mechanism when the agent is about to enter a negotiation. It can prevent the agent from entering

Parameters
  • nmi (AgentMechanismInterface) – The negotiation.

  • state (MechanismState) – The current state of the negotiation

  • preferences (Preferences) – The preferences used by the negotiator (see ufun )

  • ufun (UtilityFunction) – The ufun function to use (overrides preferences )

  • role (str) – role of the negotiator.

Return type

bool

Returns

bool indicating whether or not the agent accepts to enter. If False is returned it will not enter the negotiation

Remarks:

  • Joining a neogiation will fail in the following conditions:

    1. The negotiator already has preferences and is asked to join with new ones

    2. The negotiator is already in a negotiation

on_leave(state)

A call back called after leaving a negotiation.

Parameters

state (MechanismState) – MechanismState giving current state of the negotiation.

Remarks:
  • MUST call the baseclass on_leave using super () if you are going to override this.

  • The default behavior is to do nothing.

  • Override this to hook some action

Return type

None

on_mechanism_error(state)

A call back called whenever an error happens in the mechanism. The error and its explanation are accessible in state

Parameters

state (MechanismState) – MechanismState giving current state of the negotiation.

Remarks:
  • The default behavior is to do nothing.

  • Override this to hook some action

Return type

None

on_negotiation_end(state)

A call back called at each negotiation end

Parameters

state (MechanismState) – MechanismState or one of its descendants giving the state at which the negotiation ended.

Remarks:
Return type

None

on_negotiation_start(state)

A call back called at each negotiation start

Parameters

state (MechanismState) – MechanismState giving current state of the negotiation.

Remarks:

  • You MUST call the super() version of this function either before or after your code when you are overriding it.

  • on_negotiation_start and on_negotiation_end will always be called once for every agent.

Return type

None

on_notification(notification, notifier)

Called whenever a notification is received

Parameters
  • notification (Notification) – The notification

  • notifier (str) – The notifier entity

Remarks:
  • The default implementation only responds to end_negotiation by ending the negotiation

on_notification_(notification, notifier)

Called when a notification is received. Do NOT directly override this method

Parameters
  • notification (Notification) –

  • notifier (str) –

Returns:

Return type

bool

on_partner_proposal(state, partner_id, offer)

A callback called by the mechanism when a partner proposes something

Parameters
  • state (SAOState) – SAOState giving the state of the negotiation when the offer was porposed.

  • partner_id (str) – The ID of the agent who proposed

  • offer (tuple) – The proposal.

Remarks:
  • Will only be called if enable_callbacks is set for the mechanism

Return type

None

on_partner_refused_to_propose(state, partner_id)

A callback called by the mechanism when a partner refuses to propose

Parameters
  • state (SAOState) – SAOState giving the state of the negotiation when the partner refused to offer.

  • partner_id (str) – The ID of the agent who refused to propose

Remarks:
  • Will only be called if enable_callbacks is set for the mechanism

Return type

None

on_partner_response(state, partner_id, outcome, response)

A callback called by the mechanism when a partner responds to some offer

Parameters
  • state (SAOState) – SAOState giving the state of the negotiation when the partner responded.

  • partner_id (str) – The ID of the agent who responded

  • outcome (tuple) – The proposal being responded to.

  • response (ResponseType) – The response

Remarks:
  • Will only be called if enable_callbacks is set for the mechanism

Return type

None

on_preferences_changed(changes)

Called to inform the entity that its ufun has changed.

Parameters

changes (list[PreferencesChange]) – An ordered list of changes that happened.

Remarks:

  • You MUST call the super() version of this function either before or after your code when you are overriding it.

  • The most general form of change is PreferencesChange.General which indicates that you cannot trust anything you knew about the ufun anymore

on_round_end(state)

A call back called at each negotiation round end

Parameters

state (MechanismState) – MechanismState giving current state of the negotiation.

Remarks:
  • The default behavior is to do nothing.

  • Override this to hook some action

Return type

None

on_round_start(state)

A call back called at each negotiation round start

Parameters

state (MechanismState) – MechanismState giving current state of the negotiation.

Remarks:
  • The default behavior is to do nothing.

  • Override this to hook some action.

Return type

None

propose(state)[source]

Propose an offer or None to refuse.

Parameters

stateSAOState giving current state of the negotiation.

Returns

The outcome being proposed or None to refuse to propose

Remarks:
  • This function guarantees that no agents can propose something with a utility value

propose_(state)

The method directly called by the mechanism (through counter ) to ask for a proposal

Parameters

state (SAOState) – The mechanism state

Return type

tuple | None

Returns

An outcome to offer or None to refuse to offer

Remarks:
  • Depending on the SAOMechanism settings, refusing to offer may be interpreted as ending the negotiation

  • The negotiator will only receive this call if it has the ‘propose’ capability.

remove_capability(name)

Removes named capability from the negotiator

Parameters

capabilities – The capabilities to be added as a dict

Return type

None

Returns

None

Remarks:

It is the responsibility of the caller to be really capable of added capabilities.

remove_handler(notification_type, callback)

Removes a notification handler from the list of handlers of the given type.

Parameters
  • notification_type (str) – Notification type as specificed in the type member of the Notification class

  • callback (Callable[[Notification, str], bool]) – The callback which must receive a Notification object and a string and returns a boolean. If True is returned from one callback, the remaining callbacks will not be called

Return type

bool

Returns

Whether or not the handler was in the list of handlers for this type. In all cases, the handler will not be called after this call (either it was not there or it will be removed).

respond(state, offer)[source]

Called to respond to an offer. This is the method that should be overriden to provide an acceptance strategy.

Parameters
  • state – a SAOState giving current state of the negotiation.

  • offer – offer being tested

Returns

The response to the offer

Return type

ResponseType

Remarks:
  • The default implementation never ends the negotiation

  • The default implementation asks the negotiator to propose`() and accepts the `offer if its utility was at least as good as the offer that it would have proposed (and above the reserved value).

respond_(state, offer)

The method to be called directly by the mechanism (through counter ) to respond to an offer.

Parameters
  • state (SAOState) – a SAOState giving current state of the negotiation.

  • offer (tuple) – the offer being responded to.

Returns

The response to the offer. Possible values are:

  • NO_RESPONSE: refuse to offer. Depending on the mechanism settings this may be interpreted as ending

    the negotiation.

  • ACCEPT_OFFER: Accepting the offer.

  • REJECT_OFFER: Rejecting the offer. The negotiator will be given the chance to counter this

    offer through a call of propose_ later if this was not the last offer to be evaluated by the mechanism.

  • END_NEGOTIATION: End the negotiation

  • WAIT: Instructs the mechanism to wait for this negotiator more. It may lead to cycles so use with care.

Return type

ResponseType

Remarks:
  • The default implementation never ends the negotiation except if an earler end_negotiation notification is sent to the negotiator

  • The default implementation asks the negotiator to propose`() and accepts the `offer if its utility was at least as good as the offer that it would have proposed (and above the reserved value).

set_preferences(value, force=False)

Sets tha utility function/Preferences.

Parameters
  • value (Preferences) – The value to set to

  • force – If true, on_preferecnes_changed() will always be called even if value == self.preferences

Return type

Preferences | None

classmethod spawn(spawn_as='object', spawn_params=None, *args, **kwargs)
classmethod spawn_object(*args, **kwargs)